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Difference between Rabi and kharif crops, with examples

In those countries, where most of the economy depends on agriculture, Rabi and Kharif crops contribute most of it. 

These crops can store for longer periods and fulfill the daily food demand of people. 

In India, Rabi and Kharif crops cover most of agriculture and farmers' practice during the whole year.

Difference between Kharif and  Rabi crops

Here, we differentiated both Rabi and Kharif crops one by one according to their requirements, season of growing, and various other aspects. 

What are Kharif crops?

Let's understand Kharif crops by following terms-

1. Water consumption- Kharif crops consume 1.5 to 2 times more water than any other crops. For this much water consumption, quality and type of soil for water holding are important.

2. Rain - For Kharif crops, rain is necessary before cultivation and just after sowing of seeds, and then average after. Average rain for Kharif crops is ideal between 130 to 180 cm. 

3. Humidity- Humidity for Kharif crops is good till 50 to 70%. 

difference between kharif crops and rabi crops

4. Temperature- 25 to 35 degrees Celcius temperature is ideal for Kharif crops. More or less temperature can affect the growth of crops. 

5. Climate conditions- Kharif crops are rainy season crops. In this climate condition, the weather stays hot and wet.

6. Sowing month- Ideal time for sowing Kharif crops is mid-June month to mid-July. In some regions, this period can fluctuate by 1 week more or less.

7. Harvesting month- Kharif crops become ready in 3 to 4 months. The best time to harvest them is from September to October month. 

8. Spontaneous plants- Weeding is an important part of the Kharif season. Every cycle of Kharif crops requires weeding on the gap of 25 days in starting months. 

9. Examples- Maize, Rice(paddy), Groundnut, Green gram, Cotton, Black gram, Soybean, etc. generally cultivate during this period in South Asian countries. 

10. Composting- Alluvial soil is naturally fertilized but for those regions where alluvial soil is either less fertilized or not available, organic compost(cow dung is a principal ingredient) is an alternative before cultivation. 

11. Soil type- Best and highly recommended soil for Kharif crops is alluvial soil. Other soils like loamy soil is a secondary choice for Kharif crop cultivation. 

What are Rabi Crops?

Following terms explains Rabi crops better for a general reader-
1. Water consumption- Rabi crops are less water-consuming crops in comparison to Kharif. These crops can survive in less irrigation water conditions because of the recent rainy season. Soil consumes enough water in the rainy season. 

2. Rain - Rabi crops require natural rain neither before cultivation nor during the growing period. Despite heavy rain can destroy the yield of Rabi crops.  

3. Humidity- In winters, humidity levels remain low because of the absence or low percentage of moisture in the air. Humidity remains 15 to 25% during winter or Rabi crops cultivation. 

4. Temperature- Ideal temperature for Rabi crops is between 12 to 20 degrees Celcius in winters. 2 or 3 degrees less or more temperature can directly impact the crops.  

5. Climate conditions- Rabi crops grow during the non-monsoon period which is just next season after the monsoon. The Winter season is ideal for Rabi crops. 

6. Sowing month- Generally, Rabi crops cultivation starts from mid-October to mid-November in south Asian countries. In some regions, one week early or late. 

7. Harvesting month- Rabi crops harvest from starting of March to mid-April. 

8. Spontaneous plants- Because of less need for water, the percentage of spontaneous plants during Rabi crop cultivation is very small. However, weeding is necessary after 30 days. 

9. Examples- Barley, Wheat, Gram, Mustard, Linseed, Pea, etc. are the main crops that cultivate during this period. 

10. Soil type- Alluvial soil is the ideal soil for Rabi crops cultivation. It means that Rabi crops can grow on the same land on which Kharif crops were cultivated before.

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