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Modern Sugarcane Planting methods, Trench, Flat, Ring-Pit, and STP methods

According to global report,  more than 1.9 billion tons sugarcane produced per year. Brazil is most sugarcane producer in the world with 39% of total tons. second largest producer of sugarcane is India with 20%.

A healthy fully grown sugarcane plant has 12 to 16% of sugar. It means one litre sugarcane juice produce 70 to 130 gm of raw sugar. 

Modern Sugarcane Planting Methods

Sugarcane plant looks like maize plant but different in output production. Sugarcane cultivation starts  in the month of november december and harvested in the month of march to april. 

Sugarcane planting methods

Types of sugarcane seed cuttings 

Less sucrose portion or more glucose holding portion(upper green) of the sugarcane plant, best for seed cuttings.

On this basis, we get generally three types of sugarcane cuttings as following- 

1. One-eyed- One-eyed cutting has only one sprout potential or in simple words, it only has one node. 

These types of cutting mainly use in the trench method and flat method.

Almost 70% of one-eyed seeds get their root to become a plant, the rest of them get waste. 

2. Two-eyed- Such kinds of cuttings have two possible sprout potential or two nodes. 

This kind of cuttings uses the ring-pit method, double row method, and STP method.

Two-eyed cuttings reduce investment to 33%. These are helpful to get almost 40000 sugarcane plants per acre.

3. Three-eyed- These cuttings do not use in general methods of sugarcane plantation. Three-eyed cuttings have three possible sprout potentials or three nodes.

Three-eyed cuttings use in the flat method sometimes and sometimes in the double row method.

Three-eyed cuttings are costlier than other ones and give less production.

Methods of sugaracne cultivation 

Sugarcane plantaion is different from ordinary seed crops and seed plantation methods. It's plantation done by the cutting of  stem of cane from the part of the section from where the root starts to grow. 

1. Flat method

The most general and traditional way of sugarcane cultivation is a flat method. 

In this method, one-eyed or r two-eyed cuttings sow at a distance of 60 to 65 cm.

These cuttings directly sow in hedges of soil. 

The Flat method demands an extra amount of cuttings per acre.

The possibility rate of rooting, sprouting, and growing is less in this method. Only 60% of cuttings become sprout and 40 to 50% get full growth.

Generally, one-eyed cuttings use in the flat method.

The Flat method of sugarcane cultivation is no more applicable currently. 

2. Double row method

One step further, the double row method is better than the sugarcane planting method but not an ideal method. 

In this method, the line-to-line distance design is in the ratio of 90:30:90 or 90:50:90. It means line to line gap is 90 cm and sowing in 30 to 50 cm area.

This method not works properly for heavy production and has some shortcomings. 

Two-eyed cuttings generally use in the double row method.

Production rate in double row method, just better than flat method.

3. Ring pit method 

The Ring pit method is a modern method of sugarcane planting. 

In the method, a cylindrical 45 cm deep, 22.5 cm radius rig shape dig. From ground level to 20 cm, organic compost covers the dig. 

On this compost, two-eyed(sometimes one-eyed) cuttings(20 to 30) do set in wheel shape like spokes of cycle tyre and then cover with soil.

Per hectare, the same 4000 digs can possibly prepare. 

This method is costlier than other planting methods but works better than flat and double row methods. Sprouting and the growth rate is better with less demand for irrigation and composting. 

Ultimately, it is a costlier method of sugarcane plantation but gives results.

4. STP method 

One of the most scientific methods of sugarcane plantations is the vertical nursery method of STP. 

In this method, one-eyed cuttings prepare in nursery cups. These basic nursery cups help to get almost 90% sprout from the cuttings. 

                            After caring for them in nursery cups for 20 to 25 days, they become ready for fields.

These sprouts get quick and better growth in fields. The only method which gives better results for the STP method is the trench method.

STP method helps to get almost 80% of sugarcane from cuttings, which is a great result in comparison to others.

5. Trench method

The Trench method is one of the best modern methods of sugarcane plantation. 

In this method, fewer sugarcane cuttings(two-eyed) use per acre and all cuttings get almost 80% sprout and growth. 

Despite, a modern scientific method of sugarcane plantation, it is less costly and gives a longer sugarcane yield. 

Plants consume less water in this method through hedges. In the method, there is no disturbance of spontaneous plants to sugarcanes. 

It is easy to grid sugarcanes without any problem of space gap.

Sugarcane Uses

Sugarcane waste is used as bio fuel in some countries. It is cheaper than any other fuel and easily available at the season.

Sugarcane uses in three parts- 

Root portion

Fully grown sugarcane root portion till half of the height above the ground in sweetest portion that use to make sugar, juice, and jaggery in factories. This portion contains most percentarge  of sucrose.  

Mid portion

Mid portion of sugarcane use to make cuttings for next batch of  sugarcane cultivation.

This portion holds high glucose and least sucrose. It is green portion and best known to make cuttings of various eyes.

Top protion 

Top portion of sugarane plant is mainly, green bladed leaves which use as fodder for  cattles, especially for cows and buffellos. 

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