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Garlic farming(Lehsun), process of growing, yield per hectare, investment and profit per hectare

South Asian countries consume garlic in very different ways as medicine, complementary elements of dishes, and garlic vinegar. Garlic can be store for a very long time at a constant moderate temperature.  

Let's understand how farmers grow garlic and how can you learn garlic farming. 

Garlic farming

Unlike all of the particular crops, garlic cultivation requires specific conditions as temperature, climate, soil, seeds, fertilizers, humidity, etc. 

Requirements to grow garlic

  • Temperature required

Garlic requires moderate temperature in till sprouting period, around 15 to 20 degrees Celcius. After getting 3 to 5 inches long, they can survive up to 32 to 36 degrees Celcius. 

At the time of harvesting, a higher limit of temperature is required. 

Garlic yield per acre

  • Soil type and composition

Normally, a well-fertilized soil is enough to grow garlic but mostly loamy soil is known best soil in comparison to others. In the case of alluvial soil, it has some impurities and other elements which are not required to grow garlic but other very usual crops.

And most importantly, the pH of the loamy soil must be 5.7 to 7.

  • Climate and humidity

At some places, garlic cultivation starts from the month of May-June(Kharif season) but at some places, it starts from October-November(Rabi). 

Actually, in both scenarios, the humidity level is different but the common thing is soil moisture. 

In the first case, when monsoon enters(in India) it brings heavy rainfall, which is helpful to get moisture back in the soil after a long period of dry weather. Soil gets its moisture back when the monsoon comes. 

In the second case, the winter season, in which soil has enough moisture because of low temperature and low sunlight.

  • Fertilizers and compost required

When farmers do garlic cultivation on dry and low fertile soil, then they use non-organic fertilizers to get fast and productive results.

These non-organic fertilizers help them to get a one-time good yield. /the next cycle, soil loses its rest fertility. The main ingredients that farmers use are Urea, nutrient compost, calcium nitrate, k-max super, chemical regent Gr, etc.

These products increase the growth for a time, but these chemicals are responsible to make plants sensitive and get them diseased.  

Organic compost fertilizers are a very good option to bring soil fertility back. But practically, the quality of organic compost is not so good in the local market. But farmers can make organic compost at home because, in rural areas, almost every farmer has at least one or two cattle.  

Organic compost gives results slowly but in broad terms, it fulfills the requirement of any external fertilizer in the soil. 

How to get Garlic cloves/seeds?

One garlic clove produces a full garlic bulb of the same breed. 

The market value of garlic cloves is higher than the method garlic bulb. Smart people arrange farming cloves of garlic at home just by simple methods. It is easy to get them just by following these steps-

Choose garlic bulbs as of your requirement. Put the bulbs in a dark place and let them rest there for 15 to 18 days until the green sprout come out from them.  

Separate every clove from the bulb. A big or small garlic bulb gives 8 to 10 cloves. Every clove produces a whole bulb of 8 to cloves. This relation works as the Fibonacci series.

Garlic yield per hectare

Garlic cloves required - 350 to 370 kg

Fertilizers and nutrients required- 250 to 300 kg

With all the necessary mentioned requirements, garlic production depends on the variety of garlic seeds/cloves and the proper execution of the right method and care.

On average, it is possible to produce a total of 70 to 78 quintals of garlic per hectare. Practically, garlic yields a harvest of 55 to 60 quintals per hectare.  

Garlic investment per hectare

  • Seeds Cost- 45000 INR to 47500 INR.
  • Fertilizers- 40000 INR
  • Watering- 20000 INR
  • Labor work- 30000 INR
  • Total- 1,30,000 to 1,32,500 INR

Garlic farming profit per hectare

  • Production of garlic- 55 to 60 quintile
  • Net profit- 5,00,000 INR to 5,50,000 INR.

Process of growing Garlic 

For those who believe that they are still in doubt of garlic cultivation, they need to understand the garlic plant from starting and carefully. Such people need to follow the basic methods of garlic plant cultivation. 

Best garlic seeds/cloves variety

The main difference in the variety of garlic is based on the period of sunlight. 

On this basis, garlic varieties are of two types-

  1. Short day garlic
  2. Long day garlic

Mostly, short day garlic variety is general for cultivation. These varieties are-

  • G-1
  • G-41
  • G-282
  • G G-2
  • G G-3
  • G G-4
  • G-323
  • VLG-1
  • VLG-2

There are mainly two methods to grow garlic plants-

1. Ordinary method

This method is generally called the direct method. In the method, a well-ploughed ready land of fertilized soil requires.

In a very simple way, ready cloves of garlic directly plant in the soil and cover from the soil after. 

Showering of water is a must on regular basis(similar to 15 to 17 inches rainfall), till getting fully mature. 

Fertilizers use two times during the entire cultivation process till harvesting. The first time, when the plant becomes 30 to 36 days old towards roots. The second time, when the plant gets 60 days older. 

Watering is important just before 2 to 2.4 weeks before harvesting. 

2. Hedge cultivation

Garlic plant images

The function of the hedge cultivation system is similar to the ordinary method. Just a substitution of plane land to hedges of fertilized soil. Plant to plant distance must be constant of 3 to 5 inches as same as line distance.  

Rest is the same as the ordinary way of garlic cultivation.

Cleaning of spontaneous plant

Not only in broad seasonal crops, but in garlic also, spontaneous plants grow faster. These spontaneous plants stop the growth of garlic plants. These spontaneous plants absorb the most necessary elements from the soil, thus garlic doesn't get its full growth. 

Ultimately, within every two to three weeks, spontaneous plants get remove from the garlic crop. 

Some people suggest the use of pesticides to remove spontaneous plants, but it is misleading because it can affect plant growth.

The reason why farmers do not use organic fertilizers usually

According to the current situation, most farmers do not use organic fertilizers because of the principal reason that it gives slow results in comparison to chemical ones. The thing which forces farmers to get early results is their debt and earning. Farmers can't take the risk of a slow working process, because crops have a certain value in the market for a fixed period. 

And if they take risk of a slow working model, then they will be left far behind from profit, which is already not so good. 

Storage of garlic

Till this moment, you understand that a bunch of garlic bulbs hang in sunlight to dry. Dryness increases their life to 1 to 2 months extra. 

After the drying process, garlic needs to keep a bright place to give them fresh air. Garlic does not keep in the dark because they get sprout in the dark, and because of this, they lose their freshness. Garlic can be store for a long time if they don't get moisture. 

Garlic plant uses

  • For those who are suffering from cough and lung infection, dry garlic powder is helpful. For various skin fungal infections, garlic consumption beneficial. 
  • Garlic is a tiny but effective source of Vitamin B, C, iron, selenium, potassium, and manganese.It directly uses with vegetables during cooking. Garlic uses in more than 50 types of dishes(veg and non-veg).
  • Dry garlic powder can reduce gas problems along with headaches due to gas.
  • It increases the flavor and aroma, that's why it uses in Chinese dishes mostly.

Precautions in garlic farming

  • The most common mistake people do is overwater, which causes the yellowness in garlic leaves. 
  • People use large quantities of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. This technique helps to grow them fast but garlic bulbs do not get full growth and stop growing on their halfway.
  • In the winters, when the temperature gets cold(below 15 degrees Celcius), garlic growth affects by it and starts losing its stability.
  • A most uncommon suggestion which forces farmers to use non-organic fertilizers is their pressure on season-wise crop cultivation. Otherwise, they will have to face heavy losses in their production.

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