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Biogas plant and production, requirements, making process, and guide to install

As per development, using of harmful and chemical energy fuels affecting the environment and ecosystem. Meanwhile, global warming is increasing, pollution and other harmful effects are increasing continuously as well.

The increase in pollution and global warming effects is rapid in the last 50 years. Despite there is no effective management to overcome these global problems and still people are using such fuels(fossil fuels; petrol, diesel, and coal). 

One major solution to decrease these problems is renewable energy or biofuel. Although the use of biofuel is increased in the last 3 decades but still we are too far from generalisation. 
Let's understand what is biogas and how can an ordinary person produce biogas at home. 

Bio gas(gobar) plant 

What is Bio/Gobar gas? 

bio gas is eco-friendly fuel, in gaseous form. This gas contains mainly methane 60 to 70%, carbon-di-oxide 20 to 27%, and few other gases like sulfur-di-oxide in 1 to 3 %. 

Gobar gas forms by decomposing animal dung like gobar, poultry dung, pig farm dung, goat dung, and other organic materials that are easy to decompose.

gobar gas plant

Advantages of bio/gobar gas

  • Gobar gas is eco-friendly pollution-free fuel. It is the best alternative to fossil fuel as a source of energy. 
  • It can use directly in the kitchen for cooking. 
  • Gobar gas fuel can use to form electric energy and mechanical energy.
  • Gobar gas plant provides the best quality of compost for fields.

Required materials and equipments for Biogas production

Here, we are considering cow dung as raw material to make biogas. So instead of calling it biogas, we are calling it gobar gas somewhere.

Cow dung(gobar), cow urine, dry leaves, wasted vegetables, water, tank(as required otherwise self-constructed), pipes(rubber), pipe sealing, socket, empty cylinder, pipes, hex nipple, and taps.

Components of gobar gas plant

Gobar gas plant has mainly three sections and one additional step.

  • Decomposer

It is the biggest section of the plant which decomposes all the slurry mixture of gobar and organic waste. This section produces gobar gas and leaves the waste as compost.

  • Injector/Input section

This section uses to put slurry in the tank of the gobar gas plant or the decomposer.

  • Valves(taps)

The cover(cap) of the plant contains a section of the valve that holds the supply of produced gas. It depends on the valve that how long you want to collect the gas or close the supply. 

Bio gas plant diagram 

components  of gobar gas plant

Additional step/wastage management

In the bottom portion of the tank, one pipeline attaches to separate the non-decomposable mixture. It is a pure form of compost which separate by this section of the plant.

Steps to implement the assembling of gobar gas plant

The capacity of your gobar gas plant depends on your requirement, but we will suggest you start as a beginner with a tank of 500-liter capacity.  

So, follow the steps to make a gobar gas plant-

  • First, you need a tank(ready-made) of 500-liter capacity. If you can't arrange it from the market, then make it with cement and bricks in a dig. For a cement and bricks tank, you need an air-tight cover from the top.
  • If you are using a plastic tank, then use a hot pipe to melt down a hole of 1.5 inches. In a cement tank, you need to make a hole of 1.5 inches by drilling(metal cover). 

gobar gas constituents

  • Use a 1.5 inches double-sided hex nipple in the cap or cover of the tank and seal it airtight. 
  • Now, attach a 3 face socket(socket x socket x FNPT) of 1.5 inches with the hex nipple of the tank. 
  • So,  you have two phases of the socket left empty. Add two sockets of a width of 1.5 inches from one side and 1 inch from another. 
  • Use two simple valves(taps) of 1 inch each, connect them tightly with the Valves. 
  • Connect one more helping socket with each valve of  1 inch tightly. Remember, your pipe must be easily tightened with this socket.   
  • Make a circular hole of 3 inches in the tank for putting the material inside. Connect a 3 inches,  1/2 meter long pipe in it. Later you can use a funnel for the comfort of putting material for decomposition inside the tank. 
  • You must have a drain pipe to separate the waste material from the tank. You need to add a pipe in the bottom to clean it with a proper locking system.

How to make a slurry for biogas production?

  • You need raw cow dung(or any other like poultry, pig farm, or goat farm) about 35 to 50 kg for one cycle. Add 50-liter water to it. You can also add dry organic leaves or organic waste and mix all the ingredients well in a different tank. 
  • Now, put this mixture in the gobar gas plant tank just after mixing. Keep the cover of the tank tightly and wait for at least 2 days. 
  • Keep all the valves and cover tight all the time. 
  • One valve(tap) is for direct use of gas and another valve is to store gobar gas. You only have to on the valve to collect and store gas. It's a suggestion that doesn't use direct gas supply from the plant although you have the connection. 

Biogas(gobar gas) separation from the tank

Remember, you don't have to open any of the valves until 2 to 3 days and the plant must be air tighten.

Use an empty cylinder to store the gas or a proper rubber tube to collect the gas.

This gas can be used directly in the kitchen. 

Separation of waste material

Now your second pipe comes into use. Separate the decomposed material after it stops producing gas. It depends that how long the same material decomposes. Generally, it lasts 4 to 5 days, sometimes it lasts one week.

Separated material becomes compost after. It means you can use it as organic compost directly with irrigation water in liquid form. This compost helps to get productive yield in fields too. 

Gobar gas plant cost 

Initial investment

Gobar gas plant construction is cheaper but for the monthly cycle, it is costlier.

You can make a gobar gas plant of 500 liters easily in just 20000 to 25000 INR, but later you have to invest a good amount in it. 

Monthly cost

In a 500-liter gobar gas plant

  • Gobar cost- 2000 INR/month
  • Water cost- 1500 INR/month

Total cost- 3500 INR/month

Why gobar gas plant is costlier

  • The reason behind saying it costlier is the normal rate of LPG gas in the market. The mentioned cost is enough to get 3 to 4 LPG cylinders. These 3 to 4 cylinders last at least 3 months in an average family. But gobar gas cylinder only provides you fuel of 20 to 25 days/month at this cost.
  • Another reason is that people can earn more money from gobar by selling it as dung pattie for fuel. They can earn at least double from it by selling fuel patties of gobar. 

Subsidy on gobar gas plant

Indian central government is providing subsidies to the gobar gas plant for a very long time. Although the gobar gas plant didn't get successful in India, China is an example of using biofuel on a large scale.

Indian central government is encouraging people, especially in rural areas to establish gobar gas plants. For this, they are providing subsidies up to 30 to 35% under the central government scheme through the states.

Why gobar gas plant got failed in India?

Following are the main reasons for the failure of the gobar gas plant in India, especially in rural areas-

  • Cost of gobar gas plant and monthly investment. 
  • The arrival of LPG gas cylinders in rural areas and government schemes. 
  • Lack of amount of gobar because of limited resources as cattle.
  • Lack of information and awareness. 
  • Slow and ineffective advertisement of gobar gas plants.

Precautions for gobar gas plant

  • All the sockets and connections must be airtight otherwise anything can happen because methane gas is flammable.
  • Your ratio of gobar and water must not be highly diluted.
  • Don't use the produced gas directly in your kitchen because it doesn't secure.
  • Separate the waste slurry or compost after getting all the gas out from it, otherwise, it will cover your space in the tank and give you slow results.

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