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Dairy Farming, business project report, shed design, investment, and profit on 20 cows

Dairy farming resolves the issue of options of protein and fat to vegetarians on a large scale. 

India produces more than 20% of total milk production globally every year. These days global milk production raises up to more than 530 million metric tons per annum.

           In some countries, cow's milk is the first choice to consume but some people love buffalo milk also.


Dairy farming for milk(Cow)

Let's get familiar with milk of dairy animals

Components of milk of various animals (nutrients, protein and fat) 

1. Cow milk - 86 % water, 5 % carbohydrates, 4 % fat, 3 % protein and 2 % minerals 

2. Buffalo milk- 6 % fat, 82 % water, 4 % carbohydrates, 6 % protein, and 2 % minerals. 

Dairy farming Project report for 5 years

3. Goat milk- 5% fat, 4 % protein, 3.5% carbs, 0.5 % nutrients and 87% water.

Before getting start your Dairy farming business

  • For cow milk Dairy, you should have proper housing, water, cure, feeding, light, and professional milking machines.
  • This is a long-term investment, so don't bother about quick profit and result.
  • Training is most important thing to start a dairy farm. 
  • The cow does not produce milk continuously in a year, instead, they produce it in their lactation period. 
  • A cow produces milk after giving birth to at least a calf.  
  • You have to invest a huge one-time investment to establish your business.  
  • The feeding of animals should be full of nutrients, plenty fat, protein, carbs, and minerals. 
  • You should have to examine your animals from time to time with a proper veterinary doctor.
  • Cow consume fresh water, so do the arrangement for them as much as they need. 
  • Animals can survive in the hot weather but you have to bathe them in a day in summer at least.  
  • The Shelter area should be very hygienic and clean.

Importance of training and essential points in an ideal training for Dairy farming

It is not important that from where you are going to get training but training is a must for beginners to start a dairy farm. 

Some people think that they can start things just by reading text but the important thing is a practical demonstration of problems and their solution. 

Following are some important points that decide the quality of training and keep helpful for the longer periods-

  • The training for dairy farming must be either directly at the dairy farm or near it. The training must be of at least 7 to 10 days to teach you the behavior, problems, and solutions during business. 
  • Your training institute should give you all the information practically and in text form also. 
  • They should teach you the behavior of dairy farm animals during their pregnancy, after delivery, and on normal days.  
  • The trainer should open up any of your queries and should give the solution to you. 
  • The training program must teach you the management of cow dung and the preparation of compost of it. 
  • Hygiene and cleanliness maintenance are important points.
  • If the training program doesn't tell you about the feeding process in a day then ask them how to make concentrated feed.
  • It will be better to get the idea of the vaccination period of animals with all their diseases and fungal infections. 
  • Temperature management in an odd season is very important. 
  • Milking machinery practical knowledge is necessary and one of the major points of your training.  

You can also read cow breeds identity and performance in Dairy farming business

Business project report for 20 cows

Dairy farming is a profitable project for the owner if he follows the right path of information. 

Dairy farming Business plan and requirement for 20 cows

1. Selection of best breed of cows 

Breed selection is fundamental to your entire Dairy business, so it's all profit and loss will depend on the breed of selection. 

We choose here, one of the most demanding and profitable cow breeds which produce 1000 to 2000 kg of milk in one lactation.  

  • Sahiwal- 2400 to 2800 liter/year
  • Gir- 2000 to 2500 liter/year
  • Rathi- 1800 to 2400 liter/year
  • Tharparkar- 2002 to 2300 liter/year
  • Jersey cow- 5000 to 5500 liter/year
  • Hf cow- 6500 to 7000 liter/year

The best option and time to get dairy farming cows is festival of cows in your locality or nearby city. 
The cow festival is only place from where you can get best quality of cows on reasonable prices.

2. Housing/Shed design

Taking 40 to 50 square feet area for a cow, you need an 800 to 1000 square feet area to build a proper housing shelter.

You need a gallery between every row of at least one meter, which is already included in the measurement. 

You need to separate every cattle interaction by using bamboo or steel rod barricading in the entire area. 

3. Food storage system for dairy farming 

For 20 cows you need a 200 square feet area for their food storage.

This storage system must be moisture-free and hygienic. Its roof should be sloppy because of the rain and moisture.

This 200 square feet storage room must have all kinds of facilities of exhaust and air cooling system in summers.

4. Electricity connection

Electricity connection must be 2kwh power supply because of heavy milking machines.

You only have to arrange electricity bulbs and temperature management exhaust fans. 

In 800 square feet area, 40 LED bulbs or tube lights and 15 exhaust fans are enough.  

But one thing to remember, the MCB box should be far away from the cow's interaction. 

5. Water storage system

An underground or overground water tank of capacity 20000 liters is required  for water storage. 
This water system can be of  cement or a plastic tank but still cement tank is better and less costly than plastic one. 
Time to time cleanliness is important of thins water tank otherwise it will not be productive for animals. 
Remember to not store water in the tank for a longer period in summers and rainy season.  

6.  Feeding and water availability 

For better growth of cattle, you need a proper diet and water for them. 

You have to provide at least 150 liters of water to the cow in a day. 

The most easily available and productive feed for cattle is green fodder. Wasted vegetables like Cabbage, peas skin, and sugarcane leaves. You have to give them 30 to 35 kg of green fodder daily. 

In dry fodder, you can use rice fodder, wheat fodder, and millet. There is 5 kg of dry fodder is enough in a day. 

What is concentrate feed and how to make it at your home? 

Concentrate feed is a mixture of almost every necessary element of cattle feed which provides them full growth. 

It contains plenty of protein, fat, carbs, minerals, and fibers.  

If you want to make it at home then follow the following instructions to get better results-

For per 100kg of concentrate feed 

  • 10 kg of mustard cake 
  • 15 kg peanut cake 
  • 15 kg groundnut cake 
  • 30 kg floor maize 
  • 10 kg barley 
  • 4 kg jaggery 
  • 13 kg wheat bran
  • 1 kg salt 
  • 1 kg mineral mixture 
  • 1/2 kg baking soda 
  • 1/2 kg DCP (di-calcium phosphate) 

Feed calculation in dairy farming

A dairy farming animal needs a different portion of concentrated feed during its lactation period and on normal days. 

During the milking period, cows consume more feed but normally it is 30% short on normal days.

  • On normal days of the year(no milk production), dairy cows need 40 kg of concentrated feed daily. 
  • During lactation(milk-producing), they need more than 30% extra(50 to 55 kg) concentrated feed daily. 
  • On average, a cow produces milk for 220 to 240 days a year, the rest of the days 135 to 40 cows keep the rest of producing milk.

Thus, a cow consumes an average of 230x53=12190 kg during the milking period and 135x40=5400 kg on normal days. 

Twenty cows will consume 12190x20= 243800 kg during the milking period and normally 5400x20= 108000 kg in a year.

Total feed consumption data for 20 cows 

  • Daily consumption during the lactation period- 1060 kg/day/20 cows
  • Daily consumption on normal days- 800 kg/day/20 cows
  • Feed consumption of 20 cows per year during the lactation period- 243800 kg
  • Feed consumption of 20 cows per year on normal days- 10800 kg

Total feed consumption per year for 20 cows

243800+108000= 351800 kg/year


Investment and profit in dairy farming business

One time investment 

  • Housing- 400000 INR
  • Storage shed- 50000 INR
  • Animal buying cost- 1400000 INR
  • Electricity connection- 10000 INR
  • Water tank cost- 200000 INR
Total cost as one time investment- 2060000 INR 

Recurring investment 

  • Feeding Cost
During lactation- 810000 INR/225 days Normal days- 232000 INR/140 days

  • Total Feed cost- 1042000 INR/Year
  • Water- 50000 INR/Year
  • Labor cost - 120000 INR/Year
  • Vaccination- 20000 INR/Year 
  • Electricity - 25000 INR/ Year
  • Maintenance- 20000 INR/Year
  1. Total recurring cost 1st year- 1277000 INR
  2. Total recurring cost 2nd year- 1400000 INR
  3. Total recurring cost 3rd year- 1800000 INR
  4. Total recurring cost 4th year- 2300000 INR
  5. Total recurring cost 5th year- 2600000 INR

Profit in Dairy farming 

  • Total milk production- 67000 liters/year
  • Total cow dung collection- 44000 kg/year
  • Revenue from milk- 2025000 INR/Year
  • Revenue from compost- 109500 INR/Year
Total revenue- 2134500 INR
Loan from bank - 1004000 INR

  1. Profit margin 1st year-  minus 200000 INR
  2. Profit margin 2nd year- 350000 INR 
  3. Profit margin 3rd year- 420000 INR
  4. Profit margin 4th year- 700000 INR
  5. Profit margin 5th year- 850000 INR

Care of dairy farming animals

1. Feeding 

You have to make sure that how much you need to feed your animals during various periods of the entire year. 
You have to feed them properly twice a day at the time of pregnancy period. For weak animals, you can provide them three times a day. In the lactation period, you need to provide plenty of feeding.

2. Fever, infections and injury 

Make sure to check them from time to time in the pregnancy period, to the local veterinary doctors.  
Because of wet ground, they may be ill or infect themselves by the low hygiene, so check the condition of shelter from time to time.  
They can be injured during pregnancy and overweight. So care for them Maturely.

The above data shows that India is a Dairy farming hub which is an important part of The Indian economy and contributes stability in the primary sector of the economic model. Also there are some breeds like HF and Jersey those produce more than 20 liter milk per day. 

Rural people usually depend on agriculture and milk-producing animals like goats, cows, and Buffalo. Globally, Cows produce almost 4/5th part of total milk production

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