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Ginger farming production, requirements, and process of cultivation

Like Garlic, Ginger is an important component of Asian dishes. Ginger is one of those few roots that use in almost every country dish like curry, soup, noodles, veg, and most of the non-veg dishes of Southern Asia.

Every year more than 2.5 M tonnes of ginger produce in the world. India is the most ginger-producing country among South Asian countries with 1.7 M tonnes. 

Let's understand how ginger cultivation practices?

Ginger farming and production 

Ginger cultivation is not common as other seasonal cultivation of Rabi, Kharif, and Zaid crops. Ginger yield under the ground as roots.   

Ginger cultivation/farming

These Ginger yields get sprout and plant from the ginger cuttings.  

Ginger plant

The ginger plant is a single leaf plant that's green portion is of folded leaves. 

A mature garlic plant leaf can grow up to two feet and yield in the soil can grow up to 100 grams. Every single plant produces a single garlic piece like an onion plant. 

Requirements for ginger cultivation

Ginger cultivation duration

Generally, garlic sow between the period of month March to Starting of May. The sowing duration of the garlic plant is longer than the other Rabi and Kharif crops. Garlic crops become ready in the next 8 to 10 months for harvesting. In India, the ginger harvest is from December to the end of January.  

Soil type and pH

The basic properties for a soil to be ideal for ginger cultivation are similar to seasonal crops. 

A normal pH for ginger farming is from 6.1 to 7.2. Although organic compost fertilizers are pretty well for ginger growth their overuse can disturb the pH level. Ginger can grow effectively in alluvial soil. 

In the modern cultivation of ginger, new alluvial soil is best for ginger cultivation. 

Temperature and humidity

At sowing, the temperature must be near around 25 degrees Celcius. This near temperature helps to get growth in root ginger sprout. 

For young ginger plants, the temperature can vary from 30 to 38 degrees Celcius. For the next half-life cycle of ginger, the temperature must decrease up to 15 degrees Celcius. 

12 to 15 degrees Celcius temperature is ideal for harvesting ginger yield. 

Humidity must be near 20 to 30% at sowing, for middle growth, it decreases up to 5%, and for harvesting, 40% humidity is ideal.

Rainfall for ginger cultivation

  • For sowing- 5-10 cm
  • For Middle growth- 40 to 70 cm
  • For harvesting- 15 to 20 cm

Ginger farming production process 

Preparation of ginger cuttings

Ginger cuttings(sprout of old ginger) can only harvest on a specific climate condition with specific cuttings. 
Generally, nursery ginger cuttings don't help to get high-quality growth. On the other side, ginger cuttings are either costly or if available then their quality is so low. 
Ginger cuttings can prepare at home by using the same ginger you want to grow. In rural areas, ginger cuttings prepare by keeping ginger in dark and moist areas to let the sprout come. The ginger selection depends on the variety of particular selectors or producers.

Ginger varieties in India

There are more than 7 varieties of ginger in India. Some of them are foreign adopted varieties and some of them are country ones. Following are some popular ginger varieties in India-
  • Himagiri
  • IISR Mahima
  • IISR Regitha
  • IISR
  • Suprabha
  • Suruchi
  • Surabhi

Soil preparation/soil beds

Over moist soil is not good for ginger growth, even it can reduce the growth of sprouts. 
On dry land(20% moist), plowing hard soil is the first step. After getting plow, use the mixture of organic compost on dry land. Mix the dry and let it rest for a day. If it is necessary then irrigation water use on this mixture. 
By using tractors or general agriculture tools, make the soil beds.  

Sowing distance of ginger cuttings

The normal method of sowing ginger cuttings is to pinch them in the soil 3 to 4 inches deep. 

The line to line distance of cuttings

 In the soil beds, ginger cuttings must sow at the distance of 1 foot each. This distance allows every single ginger to yield enough and proper space. 

Plant to plant distance of cuttings

Because ginger needs space to get its full growth, so every plant to plant distance should be near as line to line distance. 

Irrigation of ginger

There are several periods during growth of ginger when different amount of irrigation water is required as for sprout, young plant, mature plant, and before harvesting.  
  • First Irrigation- After 8 days of sowing
  • Second Irrigation- After 20 days of sowing
  • Third Irrigation- After 27 days of sowing
  • Fourth Irrigation- After 35 days of sowing
  • Later Irrigation- On difference of per 10 days
  • Last Irrigation-  15 days before harvesting

Use of organic compost

The best way to use organic compost is to use it in liquid form. The Fresh made liquid organic compost is best and highly effective for the growth of ginger. 
  • First Composting- After 25 days of sowing
  • Second Composting- After 50 days of sowing
  • Later Composting- On difference of 30 days
  • Last Composting- 30 days before harvesting

Weeding in ginger farm

  • First Weeding- After 20 days of sowing 
  • Second Weeding- After 45 days of sowing
  • Third weeding- After 70 days of sowing
  • Later weeding- On the difference of just 5 to 7 days before next composting

Harvesting of ginger yield

The maximum period for harvesting ginger is 8 to 10 months. 
Separation of ginger yield from the soil is simple as it needs to pull out directly with the green plant then split from the green portion. 
Urban farmers usually use modern agriculture tools to harvest ginger but still in rural areas, ginger yield collect by the old method of separation.

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