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Paddy crop, Rice cultivation, yield per hectare, requirements, investment and profit per hectare

Paddy or Rice cultivation is a Kharif season traditional and one of the most consuming crops globally. 
Let me clear here, paddy are "husk with rice" and we separate rice from the husk. 
Paddy crop cultivation needs highly fertile areas to grow. South Asia produces a very large production of paddy. There are many deltas so that there soil is highly fertile. 
Let's understand the process of paddy crop cultivation, requirements to grow, investment, and profit per hectare

Paddy crop or Rice crop cultivation

Paddy or rice plants can become 3 feet tall. After a period, green of rice starts to appear. These greens convert into solid rice paddy after becoming mature. 
Rice cultivation
These mature rice remain in the cover till we separate them with the separating techniques. 

Paddy yield per hectare

  • One paddy or rice plant yield in a season- 80 to 100 grains
  • Paddy yield per hectare- 5 to 8 tonnes
  • After husks separation- 4 to 7 tonnes

Investment per hectare

  • Paddy seeds- 250 INR(8kg)
  • Fertilizers- 4,000 INR(40kg)
  • Pesticides- 3,000 INR
  • Irrigation water cost(in absense of rain)- 10,000 INR
  • Labor work- 10,000 INR(sowing and harvesting)
Total cost-27,250 INR/hectare

Profit per hectare

  • Price(wholesale) of 1kg rice in the market- 25 INR
  • The total price of yield per hectare- 1,00,000 INR to 1,75,000 INR
Total profit margin in one hectare=Total price-total investment cost= 72,750 INR to 1,47,750 INR

Requirements to grow Paddy crop

Following are some basic and primary requirements to grow paddy-

  • Soil type and pH 

Paddy grows at the best rate in the water-holding soils like alluvial loamy clay soil.  
In delta regions, the main soil form is alluvial soil, hence these are the best fertile soils for paddy cultivation. 
Every 5 to 7 years, new alluvial soil is collected by the rivers and that's why these delta regions are best for paddy cultivation.

  • Temperature and humidity

At the sowing of paddy seeds, a high temperature is required. At the start of the rainy season, the temperature remains 35 degrees Celcius to 38 degrees Celcius. 
For mid growth of paddy, we need a temperature between 25 degrees to 30 degrees Celcius.  
At the time of harvesting, the temperature decreases to 20 degrees Celcius which is ideal for harvesting and starting another crop.

  • Rain requirement for paddy crop

During the two phases of the growth of paddy, continuous rain is required. During this period, 120 to 200 cm of rain is required.  
At the time of harvesting, rainfall should be decreased to 30 cm. 

  • Fertilizers 

Normally, we don't need to use fertilizers in delta regions for paddy cultivation in new alluvial soil but in old soil, we need fertilizers like NPK. 
According to the health of the soil, we should use the amount of NPK.
The best way is to check the pH and percentage of elements in the soil. You can also check the data for the last production on the same soil. Only then after you should decide to use chemical fertilizers like NPK. 
Normally, farmers use fertilizers after 25 days of sowing in the first cycle. The next cycle of fertilizer uses after 65 days of sowing. 

Season of growing 

Paddy crop cultivation starts at just the beginning of the rainy season. From this season Kharif crops cultivation start from mid-June to the end of July. 
During this season, humidity keep stays highest throughout the year. 

Harvesting of paddy

Paddy crops become ready for harvesting in October-November. This is the time when rain and humidity become low and the start of the winter season.
Paddy crops harvest directly from the stem. Then after, with the help of machines, rice(with husks) is separated from the plant.
We can separate rice from the husks from the automatic machines. In rural areas, this work is still practiced with the old traditional methods like filtration, handpicking, sieving, etc.

Storage of paddy 

Rice gets insects if we keep it in a moist place. In the rainy season, white insects start to damage the stored rice. 
It is better to store the paddy in a dry and air-free place. In rural areas, people mix rock salt with rice to keep it away from worms and insects.  
It is good to keep rice closed in moisture-proof bags or boxes. 

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