Skip to main content

Cotton farming, yield per hectare, growing stages, season, investment, and profit per hectare

Cotton is a non-food cash crop and profitable too. It is one of the most used raw materials for daily uses since a couple of thousands of years ago. People used it to make their clothes, winter cushions, mattress, and making filters for various reasons. 

Let's understand the cotton farming, basic requirements to grow, harvest, and return rate of the cotton crop.

Cotton farming and production cost

Cotton is a Kharif season crop that doesn't need too much rain or too dry weather to grow. Cotton plants produce fiber and seeds both. The fiber is use for cloth making and seeds use to extract cotton oil. 

Cotton farming

It is not possible to grow cotton everywhere in the world. We need a proper requirement system to grow cotton. Following are some of the basic requirements and management of the cotton crop.

Cotton farming requirements

Following are the basic requirements to grow cotton plants-

  • Soil type and pH

Although the popular soil for cotton farming is black cotton soil but sometimes alluvial and red sandy soil is use for cotton farming with proper fertilizer management.

The range of soil pH for cotton farming should be between 5.9 to 7.8. 

  • Temperature and humidity

During the sowing of cotton seeds, the temperature should be moderate for cotton cultivation. For mid-growth, the temperature can decrease to 18 degrees Celcius. At the time of harvesting, the temperature should be dry and range between 30 to 34 degrees Celcius. 

Similarly, humidity should start increasing with the sowing process. For mid-growth, humidity can increase up to 50%. For a later period, it should decrease and become very low about 10%. 

  • Irrigation and rainfall

The cotton farmers should aware of rainfall and irrigation of cotton plants. Cotton plants don't ask for too much rain or too much dry weather. Initially, cotton plants grow in moderate rainfall and don't need extra irrigation water. But once rainfall stopped, plants require irrigation water in case of least moisture in the soil. 

You should be aware that don't too much irrigate plants during flower blooming and just before harvesting cotton fiber and seeds. 

  • Fertilizers

Although if your soil health is naturally good then you can grow cotton plants easily with organic compost. But if soil health is odd and pH is disturbed then you need proper treatment of soil by required components and fertilizers. Normally, people face the issue of lack of NPK or DAP. To solve this problem, people use  NPK in the ratio of 2:1:1 and DAP according to need. 

Cotton yield per hectare in a season

  • Number of plants per hectare- 9,000 plants
  • Cotton yield per plant- 250 grams to 400 grams
  • The line to line distance- 4 feet
  • Plant to plant distance- 3 feet

Total cotton yield from one hectare- 35 quintals(estimated)

Cotton plant stages

Following are the stages of the cotton plant to become cotton fiber-

  • The first stage- sprouting and small plants

in the first stage of cotton farming, plants start to sprout from the seeds. Within the next 2 to 3 weeks, sprouts become small plants. These plants start to make new leaves. 

  • Second stage- cotton bolls

In the second stage after 5 weeks, cotton plants start to produce buds called square cotton bolls. These square balls are the first stage of becoming cotton fiber from the buds. One single cotton plant can produce 4 to 6 cotton bolls. 

  • Third stage- Flower blooming

After 8 to 10 weeks, these buds start to convert into pink flowers. These flowers bloom for a period and then fall. It is not certain that all the flowers on the same plant will fall own together. But it is certain that after falling, each flower gives space to pop out the cotton fiber. 

  • Fouth stage- Cotton fiber

In the final stage, after 15 weeks, white cotton bolls start to pop out till they get mature. These white cotton are fiber and become mature in the next 5 weeks. So overall, it takes 140 days to 160 days to harvest cotton fiber from the day of sowing seeds. 

In most cases, cotton fibers don't become mature at the same time. So, we harvest mature fibers two to three times from the same plant till all the fibers become mature. 

Season of growing cotton

Although Cotton farming is a Kharif season crop its growing season is different according to the climate conditions. 

Mostly, cotton cultivation starts from March to May in the Southern-Western part of India. It is harvested from June to July. 

In some regions, cotton harvest in November-December. 

Cotton farming investment per hectare

  • Cotton seeds cost- 1,000 INR
  • Irrigation water cost- 10,000 INR(in absence of rain)
  • Fertilizers cost- 14,000 INR
  • Labor cost- 25,000 INR
  • Transportation cost- 2,000 INR
  • Marketing cost- 1,000 INR

Total cost- 53,000 INR

Cotton farming profit per hectare

  • Price of 1 kg raw cotton in the market- 60 INR
  • Total yield weight- 35 Quintals
  • The total price of cotton yield per hectare- 2,10,000 INR

The total profit margin on cotton yield in one hectare- 1,57,000 INR

Popular posts from this blog

Spirulina farming, project report per 1/4th acre, investment, profit per 1/4th acre, and challenges

There are very less veg options available that have the same or higher percentage of protein than meat. Spirulina is high in protein, quality diet, high in minerals, and we can consume them without cooking. Often, people call it future food.  There are very less farms of spirulina farming so its market price is very high. The spirulina farming business will become more profitable in the future. Let's understand the spirulina farming and project report for 1/4th acre. Spirulina farming  What is spirulina? Spirulina is a sea algae. Spirulina contains one of the highest percentages of protein in all diets. Vitamin B, K, antioxidants, and amino acid are some of the other major components of spirulina. One you start spirulina farming, you can harvest for next 5 months without adding or preparing any new culture.  There are two types of spirulina; human consumption and animal consumption.  We can harvest animal spirulina in the open-air pond but for human consumption, we use either a pol

45 days chicken(broiler) business plan, requirements, license, investment, and profit calculations

With the increasing demand for chicken in the market, it was always difficult to raise chicken faster. In 3 months period, poultry farms' reach was not effective in all the places. But 45 days chicken business plan fulfills the requirement, demand, and supply in the market of chicken.  Let's understand how 45 days chicken poultry farm works and what are the requirements to have a poultry farm. 45 days chicken(Broiler) business plan What is poultry farm business of 45 days? Broiler chickens are one of the fastest-growing chickens. The main reason for the short-term 45 days chicken business plan is demand and supply in the market. Chicken demand is so huge in the market. If we follow poultry farms with more than 3 months of breeds, then it can affect the stability of chickens in the market. It can increase inflation.  One more thing to starting 45 days chicken farm is because it gives a faster profit margin to the owner. Also, 45 days chicken farm is good to raise and handle a hu

Planter machine in agriculture, sections, types of planter machine, and working process

It is a big problem to sow seeds precisely. Sometimes, we scatter multiple seeds in a single spot, sometimes, spots are left empty. Also, it is hard to keep the line-to-line distance and plant-to-plant distance accurate all the time in bigger lands. This irregularity with seed sowing is very common but a big problem in traditional crop cultivation. In small fields, it is possible to check the regular pattern of seed sowing but in big hectares of land, it is almost impossible to count the regularity of seeds at the right spot.  Planter machines are very helpful to solve the problem. Let's understand the working of planter machines and their types. Planter machines in agriculture Planter machines help to sow seeds precisely in agricultural fields. It works automatically in multiple sections and maintains the line to line distance and seed to seed distance with correct accuracy. Planter machines operate from diesel and petrol.  Most of the planter machines are available as complementa

Onion farming yield per hectare, investment, and profit per hectare

In countries like India, there are several reasons of vary in onion prices. Before mentioning those reasons, let's understand the basic principle of it. Onion farming profit depends on quality of  onions, yield, and the demand of onions in market. If onion is enough in market then profit will be little lesser and vice versa. In India, every year hundreds of quintals of onions waste because of storage and management lack.    To understand the onion yield in a hectare land, first you have to understand structure and project of cultivation.  Onion farming yield per hectare In 1 Hectare(10000 square meters) agriculture land, produced onions yield most of the time varies. This number can't be certain all the time but there is a range between 100 to 120 quintals/hectare/yield.   Let's understand how this number can calculate or report direct from the cultivation side.  Configuration of onion plants Line to line, plant distance must be near 25 to 30 cm, plant to plant distance mus

Biofloc fish farming project report, requirements, investment Cost, and biofloc Profit

Biofloc fish farming method is one of those methods in which the mortality rate of fish reduces to 1 to 2% maximum. It is a modern scientific method of raising fish. Instead of using pond culture for fish farming, Biofloc fish tank use. Biofloc fish farming is a process of raising fishes in which, fish can consume protein from their waste and care them from the effect of ammonia.  Biofloc fish farming In Biofloc fish farming method, a Biofloc fish tank is created for fishes in which they stay for at least 5 months. You don't need to invest much in their feed through the time of harvesting. Here we discussed the investment and profit estimation to make a biofloc tank and estimation till the end of first cycle of fishes.  There are many advantages of the Biofloc fish farming method as it cleans the water impurities for fish. It's a low-budget highly profitable method of raising fish.  Investment in the making of a Biofloc fish pond There are two phases of investment in biofloc fi