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Cultivation of Grapes, crop duration, project report, and yield per acre

China is the most grapes producer country with over 13 millions metric tonnes. In the recent five years, India holds  7 number position(2.9 million metric tonnes) in the world that produces the most grapes. 

Grapes contains 80% water, 16% carbohydrates,Vitamin C, and Vitamin B6. Grapes mainly reduce the dryness in the body. Some people call it the "fruit of lazy people". But still grapes are very helpful and important for health. 

Let's understand the Grape's cultivation following with sowing, weeding, irrigation, composting, harvesting, and marketing. 

Grapes cultivation

Grapes are vine plants that grow better on longer, wider, and higher platforms. One grape plant can last at least for the next four years at once sowing of grape cutting. 

grapes cultivation project report

In a year, only a single crop can harvest from a grape plant vine. Then, the green plant gets dry and left its leaves for a few months. Then in the next season, the same dry plant appears with green bushy leaves and new fresh grapes.

Let's understand the sowing and harvesting season of grapes-

Grapes seeds sowing season

In the middle and southern part of India, grapes are a well-known crop in September. In northern and eastern India, grapes are not cultivated because of non-ideal climate conditions. 

September month(just after the Rainy season), is ideal to sow the first cuttings of grapes vine. 

Grapes yield harvesting season

In the next 8 to 10 months, grapes become mature and sour to sweet. They become ready in April to port in markets. The harvesting period of grapes depends on multiple factors like climate, fertilizers, irrigation water, a variety of grapes, etc. 

However, the estimated period to harvest grape yield is 8 to 10 months. 

Varieties of grapes in India
  • Perlette (white, seedless)
  • Sharad Seedless - A mutant of Kishmish Chorni (black, seedless)
  • Thomson Seedless and its mutants (white, seedless)
  • Anab-e-Shahi (white, seeded)
  • Bangalore Blue Syn. Isabella (black, seeded)
  • Bhokri (white, seeded)
  • Flame Seedless (red, seedless)
  • Gulabi Syn. Muscat Hamburg (purple, seeded)

Grapes cultivation project report per acre

Let's talk about estimation for one-acre grape cultivation including requirements, investment, yield, and profit- 

Grapes farming requirements(Per acre)

Preparation of soil

First, you have to check the pH of the soil as mentioned. To check the fertility of the soil, you must have the data of the last crop cultivation on the same land. 
After studying all the data, you need to notice the more or fewer components in soil. 
Now plow the land with available machinery. Use organic liquid compost(40% water and 60% whole organic compost) or vermicompost in one-acre land. For one square foot, 0.5 liters of liquid compost is plenty, so for one-acre land, you need more than 20,000 liters of liquid compost. 
You can use compost and water separately too. First, provide the plowed land water, and after three to four days, use vermicompost and mix it with soil. Your soil is ready for grapes vines. Remember, the soil moisture must not be more than 30% in starting. 

Grapes cuttings

For 1 acre land, 1100 to 1200 cuttings are enough to get high and quality production. 
Till now, you understand that grapes grow from sprout cuttings. So you can take cuttings of your own or you can buy them from the nursery. 
If you are making them on your own, then make sure that you have to sprout the cuttings in the nursery before sowing them. You can ask for cuttings from your nearest established grapes farm. 
So what about their sowing distance? What should be the quality distance between plants and rows? 

The Line to line distance

Each row of the plants must be a distance between 5 to 6 feet from each other. It means there will be a total of 40 rows are possible in one acre with this distance.   

Plant to plant distance

Each plant must be at a distance of 5 feet from each other. So in one row, there are 30 plants possible. 
So the total plants will be 1200 in one-acre land. 

Wooden/Iron poles 

Wooden poles are not old fashion but they are not last for a longer period like iron poles. Although wooden poles are cheaper but not a huge difference from iron poles. 
For per acre, land poles will be as same as several plants. So for one-acre land, a total of 1200 poles are required. 
Each pole must be of 'Y' shape that can connect with another pole with the help of a strong thick wire. So for one-acre land, a 5000-meter long thick wire(0.5 cm) is required. 

Irrigation water system

For the irrigation water system, a net of the thin pipeline is required. 80x50 square meter pipeline is required for the one-acre land. 
The pipes must have a small hole of 0.1 mm that can provide water drop by drop directly in the roots of the plants. 
So 1200 holes are required in the pipeline near the plants. 

Soil type and pH

The soil that is high in water drainage, is good for grapes cultivation. In the middle section of India, mainly red soil, black soil, and soil with lime mixed are popular for particular crop cultivation. 
Some people believe that loamy soil is also good for grapes cultivation but there is a debate on it regarding the pH and TDS in comparison to red, and black soil. 
The pH must be between 6.5 to 7.5 in the soil for grapes cultivation.

Rain and humidity

Grapes plants don't ask for high rain during the growing period but moderate rain helps them to grow and save the extra irrigation water. But moderate rain can be a disaster at the time grapes appear. 
It can tear them before getting mature. 10 to 50 mm rain is enough during starting the growth of plants and then no rain is required. You have to use your irrigation water through the water system that you fixed. 
20 to 35% of humidity is ideal in starting growth of the grapes plant. 5 to 15% humidity is best for harvesting the grapes. 

Compost and fertilizers

The homemade vermicompost is highly productive in grapes cultivation. It gives the best results in comparison to other chemical market fertilizers. Vermicompost provides healthy and constant growth throughout the period and gives high and quality yield.
Each plant need 0.5 kg liquid vermi compost in a month. So for 1200 plants, 600 kg compost is required in a month. 
You have to use vermicompost during the initial growth and at the time of appearing of small grapes to boost their growth. It means you need to provide compost 5 times in a cycle. 

Investment in Grapes cultivation per acre

One time investment

  • Cuttings cost- 1500 INR
  • Iron poles of 'Y' shape- 4,50,000 INR
  • Thick wires- 45,000
  • Irrigation pipeline system- 1,50,000
Total cost- 6,46,500 INR

Per cycle investment

  • Irrigation water- 50,000 INR/Year
  • Labor- 20,000 INR/year
  • Compost- 55,000 INR/year
  • Transportation- 10,000 INR/Year
Total cost- 145,000 INR

Total cost on first year- 7,91,000 INR
From the next year, you have to follow per cycle investment cost. First you will not get any profit for next 1.5 to 2 years. Your first return will be enough to recover the investment.

Profit in Grapes cultivation per acre

  • Market price of 1kg grapes- 70 INR/Kg 
  • Value of yield from a single plant- 840 INR
  • Value of total yield- 10,08,000 INR/Year
  • Net profit from a single plant- 180 INR
  • Total net profit per acre- 2,17,000 INR
  • Total net profit from next yield- 8,00,000 INR/Year
From the next yields the same net profit will follow 8,00,000 INR to 8,50,000 INR. 

Grapes yield per acre in India

  • Yield per plant- 12 to 15 kg(approx)
  • Yield per acre- 18 tonnes.

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